|No. 19||Social Science Virtual Library: a project outline|
|No. 18||Comparative investigation MESSENGER vs. FULCRUM: a project report|
|No. 17||Indexing and Fulcrum evaluation|
|No. 16||Assistance for library work procedures through information technology: The project SCHILDKRÖTE|
|No. 15||Costs and benefits of information services - an example illustrated by the Social Science Information Centre|
|No. 14||Electronic versions of the Thesaurus for the Social Sciences and the social science classification|
|No. 13||TRI:M-Study on customer satisfaction (regular customers) 1997|
|No. 12||Text-Facts-Integration in ELVIRA|
|No. 11||The Association Information System ELVIRA II: a project outline|
|No. 10||Pretest for the project German Indexing and Retrieval Test Database|
|No. 9||Computer supported production of documentations on social science topics - COGET|
|No. 8||User research, structuring of information events and software development at the Social Science Information Centre|
|No. 7||Computer Supported Co-operative Work: State of the Art|
|No. 6||Information acquisition and processing in the midst of deregulation, commercialisation and world-wide networking ("Layer model")|
|No. 5||Relational databases in comparison: an interim report|
|No. 4||Design of a first prototype of the ZVEI Association Information System ELVIRA|
|No. 3||Visualisation and graphical user interfaces|
|No. 2||Possibilities for intelligent integration of heterogeneous datasets: the GESINE project|
|No. 1||The WOB Model|
The working papers (ISSN 1431-6943) can be ordered from IZ as hard copies free of charge (order form - in German)
or can be viewed through our website and printed as pdf-file via the Adobe Acrobat Reader. The program is available as freeware for Windows 95/NT.
Social Science Information Centre: Michael
Kluck, Jürgen Krause, Matthias N.O. Müller in co-operation
with the Working Group 'Elfikom'at the Darmstadt University of
Technology: Rudi Schmiede, Helmut Wenzel, Stefan Winkler, Wolfgang
Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Sozialwissenschaften: Projektskizze
Social Science Virtual Library: a project outline
IZ Working Paper No. 19, February 2000, 43 pages
The Social Science Virtual Library project aims at presenting
an integrated view to distributed, heterogeneous data of social
science literature. The main emphasis is on solving problems of
access in content to such diverse document sets. The project is
a co-operation with the Darmstadt University of Technology.
Gisbert Binder, Matthias Stahl, Lothar Faulborn
Vergleichsuntersuchung MESSENGER-FULCRUM: Projektbericht
Comparative investigation MESSENGER vs. FULCRUM: a project report
IZ Working Paper No. 18, April 2000, 70 pages
The user test compares the performance of FULCRUM, a retrieval
instrument based on automatic indexing as opposed to IZ's controlled
indexing, which yields relevancy-ranked search results, with MESSENGER's
standard free text search. MESSENGER is a retrieval instrument
which includes the keywords intellectually assigned by IZ. The
results indicate that test persons working with FULCRUM preferred
the Boolean exact match retrieval over the vector space model
(best match procedure). For the recall the mixed version of intellectual
and automatic indexing offered in MESSENGER turned out to be far
superior compared to the quantitative-statistical approach.
Jürgen Krause, Peter Mutschke
Indexierung und Fulcrum-Evaluierung
Indexing and Fulcrum evaluation
IZ Working Paper No. 17, May 1999, 37 pages
Today's commercial text retrieval systems essentially rely on
intellectually and/or automatically generated keywords, which
can be searched via Boolean operators, including or excluding
additional thesaurus relations. On the other hand, there are quantitative-statistical
procedures offering relevance ranking of results that in recent
years have increasingly caught on in the business world as well.
This work report investigates the question of the most adequate
concept for text analysis and indexing for an information system.
On a broad level, it discusses the pros and cons of intellectual
and automatic indexing in conjunction with both Boolean queries
and quantitative-statistical search systems and, in addition,
presents an evaluation of the information technology fundamentals
for a modern information system.
Udo Riege, Siegfried Schomisch, Marcus
Informationstechnologische Unterstützung von Arbeitsabläufen in einer Bibliothek: Das Projekt SCHILDKRÖTE
Assistance for library work procedures through information technology: The project SCHILDKRÖTE
IZ Working Paper No. 16, May 1999, 51 pages
The Social Science Information Centre (IZ) processes approximately
350 journals - predominantly for input into the database SOLIS
- as well as collections of loose-leaf editions. A large portion
of the work capacity at the institute's library is dedicated to
the management of these periodicals. Along with the gradual changes
in work procedures at IZ, a computer-based solution was developed
and brought to market. The work report depicts the development
of an application software for the management of periodicals for
small and medium-sized libraries. It particularly emphasizes the
project conception, the software ergonomic design, and user participation
as well as a detailed product description. The software program
can be obtained through IZ under the product name SCHILDKRÖTE,
available since December 1998.
Kosten und Nutzen von Informationsdienstleistungen am Beispiel des IZ Sozialwissenschaften. Ansätze zu einer quantitativen Näherung.
Costs and benefits of information services - an example illustrated by the Social Science Information Centre (IZ). Approaches towards a quantitative estimate.
IZ Working Paper No. 15, April 1998, 43 pages
As a contribution to economic efficiency considerations regarding
information services, the report presents a quantitative estimation
quoting figures with respect to the usage of references produced
by IZ versus the costs of their production, and comparing them.
The most important outcome is: the benefits of IZ's databases
are 30 times higher than the costs.
PDF-Datei (136 KB)
Elektronische Version des Thesaurus und der Klassifikation Sozialwissenschaften
Electronic versions of the Thesaurus for the Social Sciences and the social science classification
IZ Working Paper No. 14, April 1998, 23 pages
The course of production in the construction of the SOLIS and
FORIS databases requires a human, intellectual processing and
recording of the documents including the assignment of keywords
from the "Thesaurus for the Social Sciences" as well
as classification numbers from the list of social science classifications.
This relatively labor-consuming procedure is an essential quality
trait constituting both databases. The paper describes the development
of an application software depicting both thesaurus and classification
in their entire structure and offering their export into other
software programs. The electronic versions of both thesaurus and
classification conveniently support all work procedures that are
part of the contents-related data preparation. Due to the export
function the software provides, it is a multi-purpose program.
The paper's focus lies on questions of software-ergonomic design
as well as on user participation that would help with the software
development. In addition, results of a user test and a future
outlook on possible further developments are presented.
PDF-Datei (192 KB)
Matthias Stahl, Gisbert Binder, Detlev Cosler
(under consultation with Dr. Joachim Scharioth
TRI:M-Studie zur Kundenzufriedenheit (Mehrfachkunden) 1997
TRI:M-Study on customer satisfaction (regular customers) 1997
IZ Working Paper No. 13, April 1998, 37 pages (Appendix)
The paper presents methods and results of a survey on customer
satisfaction among IZ's regular clients. The survey evolved out
of a joint project, in which TRI:M, a system to tie customers
developed by INFRATEST BURKE in Munich, was employed in IZ for
the first time. The study produced a tremendously positive result
for IZ: the TRI:M-Index, indicating general customer satisfaction,
is with a value of 81 significantly higher than the average value
of other TRI:M-studies. Those surveyed ascribe to IZ a high professional
competence in terms of the services rendered in social science
and information science or technology. Overall, IZ's products
and services were rated qualitatively high.
PDF-Datei (439 KB)
Juergen Krause, Thomas Mandl, Maximilian Stempfhuber
Text-Fakten-Integration in ELVIRA
Text-Facts-Integration in ELVIRA
IZ Working Paper No. 12, December 1997, 27 pages (out-of-print)
The report describes the text-facts-integration in ELVIRA from
a user perspective and at the same time analyzes the emerging
informational processes. Based on the ELVIRA II data volume and
the information retrieval theory, a model is developed including
three levels of text-facts-integration. At level 2 one can find
the transformations with which for instance the user may obtain
additional texts with his search for facts. For ELVIRA II these
transformations are especially promising. They are described in
detail and illustrated by concrete examples from the practical
PDF-Datei (107 KB)
Krause, Thomas Mandl, Maximilian Stempfhuber
Das Verbandsinformationssystem ELVIRA II: Projektskizze
The Association Information System ELVIRA II: a project outline
IZ Working Paper No. 11, April 1997, 56 pages
The goal of project ELVIRA II is the development of an integrated
market information system serving as a platform for several industrial
associations. The member companies will obtain access to important
market information via this platform. With small and medium-sized
companies modern information technology for the purpose of getting
information hasn't really caught on due to a variety of reasons.
The German Machinery and Plant Manufacturers' Association (VDMA),
the Association of the German Construction Industry (HVB) as well
as the German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association
(ZVEI) are planning to develop a market information system that
would provide online access to current data of various kinds and
would cover as many of the company needs as possible. The project
deals predominantly with the text-facts-integration.
PDF-Datei (224 KB)
Elisabeth Frisch, Michael Kluck
Pretest zum Projekt German Indexing and Retrieval Testdatabase (GIRT) unter Anwendung der Retrievalsysteme Messenger und freeWAISsf
Pretest for the project German Indexing and Retrieval Test Database (GIRT) applying the retrieval systems Messenger and freeWAISsf
IZ Working Paper No. 10, July 1997 (2nd edition October 1997), 66 pages (out-of-print)
The project GIRT is about an empirically based comparison of different approaches to automatic indexing and the support of information retrieval. For the pretest 13.000 documents from the SOLIS and FORIS databases were presented to experts. The test results produced by the different systems were compared with the pre-established optimal results.
The pretest, the results of which are presented here, established that the conventional retrieval system Messenger produced an 11 percent higher rate of search results, when external experts were involved, and even a 29 percent higher rate, when inhouse experts were involved, than freeWAISsf, a simple search engine with statistical ranking.
Udo Riege, Siegfried Schomisch, Marcus Schommler
COGET - Computergestützte Erstellung von Themendokumentationen
Computer supported production of documentations on social science topics - COGET
IZ Working Paper No. 9, December 1996, 58 pages (out-of-print)
IZ produces a number of publications in printed form based on
the databases SOLIS and FORIS: among these are documentations
on social science topics as well as the series "Sozialwissenschaftlicher
Fachinformationsdienst - soFid (Social Science Specialized Information
Service)". The production process of these database-based
publications from searches of the relevant data collections through
delivery to the publisher was, until now, relatively complex and
required a costly co-ordination of the participating partners.
This high cost led to consideration of means to make the process
simpler and to provide greater support. In the working paper,
the development of the software COGET is described, which supports
the process of content organisation of the searched documents.
Emphases here are questions of software ergonomic design as well
as the user participation in the development of the software system.
Furthermore the results of the user tests are presented. Finally
there is a look forward to possible extensions of the work.
Gisbert Binder, Matthias Herfurth, Jürgen
Krause, Jutta Marx, Matthias Stahl
Nutzerforschung, Gestaltung informationeller Abläufe und Softwareentwicklung am Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften
User research, structuring of information events and software development at the Social Science Information Centre
IZ Working Paper No. 8, December 1996, 29 pages (out-of-print)
This working paper outlines the conception of user and client
orientation of IZ more concretely. It concerns an iterative process
of hypothesis building, whose effectiveness is refined at every
development level: the statutes, work programmes and statements
of the advisory committees analytically establish a basic consensus
on the desirability of certain services. These initial hypotheses
are tested through empirical surveys and observations concerning
their practicability and they are subsequently refined in detail.
The new information technologies and the scientific advances extend
them permanently to testing hypotheses. Only when all of these
activities work together can an information service develop, which
is suited to the requirements of users/clients.
PDF-Datei (110 KB)
Computergestützte Gruppenarbeit: State of the Art
Computer Supported Co-operative Work: State of the Art
IZ Working Paper No. 7, September 1996, 131 pages
The report "Computer Supported Co-operative Work" offers an overview, oriented towards the support functions, of current systems and system developments in the area of Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW). It sets out a central research question and shows perspectives for the use of CSCW systems in IZ and for GESIS.
Informationserschließung und -bereitstellung zwischen Deregulation, Kommerzialisierung und weltweiter Vernetzung ("Schalenmodell")
Information acquisition and processing in the midst of deregulation, commercialisation and world-wide networking ("Layer model")
IZ Working Paper No. 6, September 1996, 24 pages
The current situation for information service centres is characterised
by a fundamental change in the information technology. The centralised
structures of the last 20 years in traditional information and
documentation development have led to growing difficulty in data
acquisition, in the co-ordination of co-operating partners, and
for users. Considerations involved in the stages of conversion,
which will lead to the layer model, must take not only the information
technological but also the economic and social conditions into
account. They build on the changes caused by deregulation. In
the layer model, the task of the information service centre shifts
from that of supplier of a single database to that of the co-ordinator
of different, non-hierarchically bound groups, who co-ordinate
and support by means of information technology.
PDF-Datei (137 KB)
Relationale Datenbanksysteme im Vergleich: Eine Zwischenbilanz
Relational databases in comparison: an interim report
IZ Working Paper No. 5, December 1995, 67 pages (out-of-print)
The choice of a particular database software is a decision of
basic strategic importance. As well as the computer itself, the
development tool which will form the technological base for the
creation of an integrated total concept for the association of
all relevant management data must also be carefully chosen. Against
this background, in this study the most common current relational
database systems for larger UNIX platforms are investigated and
evaluated in relation to the information technology requirements
of the Social Science Information Centre (IZ).
PDF-Datei (272 KB)
Juergen Krause, Thomas Mandl und Max Stempfhuber
Design des ersten Prototypen des ZVEI-Verbandsinformationssystems ELVIRA
Design of a first prototype of the ZVEI Association Information System ELVIRA
IZ-Working Paper No. 4, April 1996, 31 pages
The paper represents the development of a design for ELVIRA, based on the requirements profile for an information system for the ZVEI (German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers' Association) and on the WOB Model, a software ergonomic model for information systems (see IZ Working Paper No. 1). The user domains and their requirements are presented in summary form.
The paper is out-of-print, however, its essential contents are now part of a newer publication entitled "Market Analysis and Market Prognosis. The ZVEI Association Information System ELVIRA" (Volume 2 of the series "Research Reports").
Visualisierung und graphische Benutzungsoberflächen
Visualisation and graphical user interfaces
IZ Working Paper No. 3, May 1996, 40 pages
This working paper contains a stocktaking of the creative methods
behind a graphical user interface, starting with the simple elements
such as keypads and scroll bars through to the mixing of modalities
through animation or the spoken word. At the centre lies the discussion
of competing approaches of "metaphor creation" vs. "visual
formalisms". The author argues against a straightforward
either/or solution and makes a plea for a combination of both
concepts, if this is at all possible.
In the final section of the working paper, the visualisation possibilities employed in the WOB Model (see IZ Working Paper No. 1) are presented.
PDF-Datei (386 KB)
Jutta Marx, Peter Mutschke, Marcus Schommler
Möglichkeiten der intelligenten Integration heterogener Datenbestände: das Projekt GESINE
Possibilities for intelligent integration of heterogeneous datasets: the GESINE project
IZ Working Paper No. 2, December 1995, 44 pages
Also in the social sciences, there is an increasing demand for
the provision of complex and high-quality information referring
to social science queries and knowledge processes. With conventional
database searches, only a small part of the "enlarged"
social science information requirement can be met. The aim of
the GESINE project, whose conception is the subject of this working
paper, is therefore the development of an inter-institutional
object-oriented desktop environment in which the information holdings
of all the institutes who are members of GESIS (Gesellschaft Sozialwissenschaftlicher
Infrastruktureinrichtungen / German Social Science Infrastructure
Services) can be made available to all staff members and users
as corporate knowledge in a homogeneous and integrated form using
a graphical user interface.
PDF-Datei (180 KB)
Das WOB-Modell / The WOB Model
IZ Working Paper No. 1, December 1995, 77 pages
The WOB-Model (auf der Werkzeugmetapher basierende strikt
objektorientierte graphisch-direktmanipulative Benutzungsoberfläche)
is a common software ergonomic basis for the development of graphical
user interfaces, which tries, using a set of co-ordinated ergonomic
techniques, to resolve the inherent contradictions in the creation
process - like that between flexible dialog control and conversational
prompting. The model was developed as part of a sponsored project
at the University of Regensburg, evaluated empirically in an application
using an "information system for engineering materials"
and has already served many times as the basis for different commercial
products; it is, however, applicable to many other domains, such
as bibliographic databases.