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International Relations and Peace and Conflict Research at the University of Tübingen

A master's degree in `Political Science with Special Emphasis on International Relations' was introduced at the Institute of Political Science at the University of Tübingen in autumn 1995. The course is run by the Department of International Relations/Peace and Conflict Research, under the direction of Professor Volker Rittberger. It is aimed at anyone with a special interest in issues relating to international politics and peaceful coexistence between states and societies. The new focus is intended to accommodate the increasing differentiation in political science and thus do justice to the complexity of government in the modern world. At the same time, it is a response to the growing demand for young researchers with a solid knowledge of international relations and with the ability to provide effective analyses of international conflict-situations. The course is therefore particularly suited to those seeking employment in the field of international relations--for example, in international (intergovernmental and non-governmental) organizations, transnational business-concerns, foreign-policy consultancy, or the media.

As far as content is concerned, peace and conflict studies at Tübingen have developed around four core areas. (1) The department has for many years been actively engaged in research on co-operation, which examines the opportunities for, and conditions governing, the peaceful resolution of conflicts and the achievement of lasting co-operation between states. Prime concerns of the research here are the emergence and co-operation-related effects of international entities such as the United Nations and the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. Projects on this theme have been, and continue to be, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG: German Research Society) and the United Nations University in Tokyo. (2) A further core-area is investigation of the national conditions required for the institution of non-violent foreign and security policy. A series of papers on foreign-policy analysis have been produced as part of this. March 1997 saw the start of a wide-ranging research project (also funded by the DFG) on German foreign policy since unification. (3) The department also closely observes processes of armament, disarmament, and arms conversion in the field of international security policy, with a view to identifying the factors underlying them. (4) Finally, the department has recently been focusing to a greater degree on the systematic study and further development of the `theory of international relations'.

As an aid to its research and teaching activities, the department maintains a specialist library, an archive, and an impressive collection of international documents. Since 1985, it has produced the series `Tübinger Arbeitspapiere zur Internationalen Politik und Friedensforschung' (Tübingen Working Papers on International Politics and Peace Research), which publishes current research. A detailed description of peace and conflict studies at Tübingen, together with information on the department's staff and publications, can be found on the Internet at: http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/spi/ab2menu.htm.

Contact: Prof. Volker Rittberger, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Abteilung Internationale Beziehungen/Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Melanchthonstr. 36, D-72074 Tübingen, Tel.: +49 (7071) 29-74957, Fax: +49 (7071) 29-78372, e-mail: volker.rittberger@uni-tuebingen.de.

Académie de la Paix et de la Sécurité Internationale

The International Peace Academy, under the directorship of the Indian General Indar Jit Rikkhye, was founded in New York in 1967. Out of this there developed the French Académie Mondiale pour la Paix, based in Nice and directed by René-Jean Dupuy (professor of international law at the Collège de France). In 1985, the academy changed its name to Académie de la Paix et de la Sécurité Internationale. Its purpose, with the support of the French defence ministry, was to promote the aims of the United Nations Charter and help preserve peace and international security.

The original initiative for the foundation of the academy actually came from the French ambassador Jacques Leprette, with support from the Nobel Peace Prize winner René Cassin, who had drawn up the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Cassin was the academy's first honorary president. Since its foundation, the academy has been directed by René-Jean Dupuy and managed by Professor Claude Nigoul (Nice), its secretary-general.

The work of the academy is very much influenced by its close contacts with the United Nations, and in particular by its co-operation with the UN's deputy secretaries-general F. T. Liu and Robert Müller. The former secretary-general Boutros-Boutros Ghali was one of the founders of the academy and has been involved in its work for many years, notably in relation to the Arab-Israeli conflict.

One important pillar of the academy's activities is its promotion of federalism, particularly European federalism. In this connection, it enjoys the support of the Centre International de Formation Européenne in Nice, led by Professor Ferdinand von Kinsky, and of the European Union and other international organizations with a European bent. In addition, the academy also deals with the following issues:

*crisis regions and international conflicts

*management of regional and domestic conflicts

*world issues and peace strategies

*the work of the UN and its subsidiary bodies/the importance of humanitarian actions and the role of the blue helmets

*security and stabilization in the Mediterranean area (effects of decolonization/terrorism/economic aspects, etc.)

The work of the academy is influenced both by adherents of so-called realism, in the sense of a partly militarily determined balance of forces, and by those who believe that peace is possible on the basis of mutual empathy and negotiation.

The academy's theme for 1997 is `NATO in the International Security System'. Against the background of the impending reforms of the Atlantic Alliance, the main focus will be a UN proposal that the armed forces of all the regional organizations should be placed institutionally at its disposal.

Contact: L'Académie de la Paix et de la Sécurité, 10 av. des Fleurs, F-06000 Nice, Tel.: +33 (4) 93 37 79 30, Fax: +33 (4) 93 37 79 39.

The Richardson Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies

The Richardson Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies was founded in 1959, and was the first peace-research centre to be established in Britain. The aims of the institute, which now forms part of the Department of Politics and International Relations at the University of Lancaster, are: (1) to promote better understanding of the conditions of peaceful change; (2) to offer opportunities for undergraduate and postgraduate study and research; (3) to encourage the practical application of its work; and (4) overall, to be a centre of excellence in peace and conflict research.

The institute's teaching and research is organized around two overall themes: first, peaceful change, which includes understanding the roots of violence and how they can be transformed; and second, conflict resolution, involving the analysis of contemporary conflicts and the exploration of constructive responses. Current research thus tackles the following issues:

*turning-points and sticking-points in the peace process (dir.: Hugh Miall), as exemplified in the cases of Northern Ireland, Israel/Palestine, and South Africa

*conflict prevention in the wider Europe (dir. Hugh Miall)

*psychology of co-operation (dir. Morris Bradley), which involves study of attitudes towards co-operation among samples of university students

*drama theory of conflict (dirs. Morris Bradley and Hugh Miall).

*role of the churches in the Northern Ireland conflict (dir. Bill Cave)

*nature and function of a peace profession (dir. Cécile Seetharamdoo), with special reference to the training of peace-workers

*over the coming years, the institute will expand its activities to the following areas: (1) peace processes; (2) psychological aspects and problems of reconciliation (in collaboration with social psychologists and psychotherapists); (3) co-operation and conflict in the context of globalization; (4) continuation of basic research on the theory of conflict resolution applied to both symmetric and asymmetric conflicts.

In addition, two new research projects will begin next year. These will deal (1) with the role of indigenous conflict-resolution practices in developing countries, and (2) multiple identities and autonomy arrangements as means of mitigating ethnic conflict, with reference to the Basque country, Eastern Europe, and southern Asia.

The Richardson Institute also provides various opportunities for M.Phil. and D.Phil. study; and over the next three years MA modules on `Conflict Transformation and Resolution' and `Conflict Management in Contemporary Conflicts' will be introduced, together with an undergraduate course on `Understanding Peace Processes'.

Contact: Dr Hugh Miall/Dr Morris Bradley, The Richardson Institute, Dept. of Politics and International Relations, Lancaster University, GB-Lancaster LA1 4YF, Tel.: +44 (1524) 594290/594266, Fax: +44 (1524) 594238, e-mail: ri@lancaster.ac.uk.

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