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Johan Galtung Awarded Honorary Doctorate

In July 1995, the faculty of social sciences at the University of Osnabrück awarded an honorary doctorate to Johan Vincent Galtung for his services to the development and establishment of present-day peace and conflict research. The occasion has now also been marked by the publication of a book by György Széll and Dieter Kinkelbur entitled Forschung, Erziehung und Arbeit für den Frieden (Research, Education, and Work for Peace). The book contains the texts of the addresses and literary contributions made at the ceremony, as well as essays by Johan Galtung and background information. The following topics are covered: appreciation of Johan Galtung as a scholar and peace-theoretician; changes in the discussion about imperialism and the concept of development; the effects of war and the prospects for peace in former Yugoslavia; problems of, and prospects for, peace and conflict research; peace research/peace education/peace studies.

Contact: University of Osnabrück, c/o The President (Prof. Rainer Küntzel), Neuer Graben-Schloß, D-49074 Osnabrück, Tel.: +49 (541) 969-0, Fax: +49 (541) 969-45 70.

Friedensgutachten 1996: Tenth Anniversary Issue

This year sees the publication of the tenth issue of the annual Friedensgutachten (Peace Report), produced by the three major German peace research institutes--the Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (HSFK: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt), the Forschungsstätte der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST: Protestant Institute for Interdisciplinary Research), and the Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universität Hamburg (IFSH: Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy)

Over these ten years, the Friedensgutachten has established its reputation primarily with contributions on topics such as nuclear disarmament and proliferation, the nuclear test-ban, chemical and biological weapons, land mines, conventional disarmament, and arms control. It has become an authoritative reference-tool on international conflict and the systematic observation of actual and potential threats to peace.

Friedensgutachten 1996 deals with events whose effects will probably be felt into the next century. It discusses important political disputes and bones of contention in Europe--currency, nuclear weapons, policy vis-à-vis the Balkans, the eastward expansion of the EU and NATO--and suggests solutions. Other contributions deal with threats to the peace process in the Middle East, the troubles in the Caucasus, the precarious balance of power in East Asia, the role of Turkey between Europe and the East, and political developments in the Islamic world. An analysis of terrorism as a challenge to international politics marks the breaking of new ground for the Friedensgutachten.

As usual, the recommendations and topical analyses (on `Germany and Europe', `Post-Soviet Geography', `Global Challenges', and `Arms Control') are supplemented by a detailed chronological table of events.

Contact: Dr Bruno Schoch, Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Leimenrode 29, D-60322 Frankfurt/M., Tel.: +49 (69) 959104-0, Fax: +49 (69) 558481, e-mail: <hsfk@em.uni.frankfurt.de>, www: <http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt.de/hsfk>.

Jahrbuch Frieden 1997

This year's Jahrbuch Frieden (Peace Yearbook) has an introductory section headed `Seeking Power without Power? The Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Peace Policy'. The editors--Hanne-Margret Birckenbach, Uli Jäger, and Christian Wellmann--have prefaced the usual four-part text (1. conflicts and conflict resolution; 2. arms and disarmament; 3. peace work; 4. annexe) with a six-part introductory section that addresses the increased demand, both in the academic world and amongst the general public, for more detailed consideration of social aspects.

In addition, parts 1 and 2 analyse current conflicts and their causes and provide a critical appraisal of internal political decision-making processes in the areas of arms procurement and disarmament. Parts 3 and 4 describe and analyse a number of non-governmental organizations--some of them relatively unknown--and their social impact.

The--as usual comprehensive--annexe contains a select chronology of peace work in 1995-6, a list of winners of peace prizes in 1995-6, and of peace-related commemorative dates in 1997..

Contact: Uli Jäger, c/o Verein für Friedenspädagogik Tübingen e.V., Bachstraße 22, D-72070 Tübingen, Tel.: +49 (7071) 21312, Fax: +49 (7071) 21543.

Verein für angewandte Konfliktforschung e.V.

With effect from 1 February 1996, responsibility for the activities of the Unabhängiges Institut für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung--Forschungsstelle für historische und sozialwissenschaftliche Studien (UIFK: Independent Institute for Peace and Conflict Research/Historical and Social Studies Research Unit for the Berlin Area) was legally assumed by the Verein für angewandte Konfliktforschung/Forschungsstelle für historische und sozialwissenschaftliche Studien (VAK: Association for Applied Conflict Research/Historical and Social Studies Research Unit). The new director of the research unit, and successor to the former head, Dr Siegfried Melcher, is Dr Carola Wuttke. The VAK has also assumed responsibility for the publication of the periodical Konfliktforschung Aktuell: Probleme, Analysen, Standpunkte. The first quarterly issue for 1996 deals, amongst other things, with: the party system in the Federal Republic before and after unification; ways of promoting women in higher education in Berlin and Brandenburg; a hearing on the architecture of peace in Europe.

Contact: Verein für angewandte Konfliktforschung-Forschungsstelle für historische und sozialwissenschaftliche Studien, Allee der Kosmonauten 32, D-12681 Berlin, Tel.: +49 (30) 5465 2005, Fax: +49 (30) 5465 2143.

Old West and New East

The background papers for the 1995 Spring Academy held by the Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (HSFK: Peace Research Institute Frankfurt) are now available in published form. Reports and analyses presented at the Academy have been brought together by Berthold Meyer, along with detailed documentation, into a book entitled `Alter' Westen und `neuer' Osten: West-Ost- und Ost-West-Beziehungen in Europa zwischen Annäherung und Distanz. The papers are divided into three overall sections and deal with topics such as: (1) theories of collective security, the status of Western Europe in the international system, globalization and fragmentation in international politics, nationalism; (2) the reorientation of east-central and central European countries and the attitude of `old' Western Europe; (3) the mechanisms through which processes of dissociation and association are effected (NATO, the UN, the CSCE, etc.).

Contact: Dr Berthold Meyer, Hessische Stiftung Friedens- und Konfliktforschung, Leimenrode 29, D-60322 Frankfurt, Tel.: +49 (69) 95904-0, Fax: +49 (69) 558481, e-mail: hsfk@em.uni-frankfurt.de, www: http://www.rz.uni-frankfurt,de/hsfk.

Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC)

As part of its research into development and post-conflict disarmament in `Third World' countries, the Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC) is conducting a research project into disarmament and reintegration in Sub-Saharan Africa. The project is a joint initiative by researchers at BICC and in Africa and is supported by the Volkswagen Foundation.

In the past decade, several countries in the Sub-Saharan area have conducted large-scale demobilizations, usually in the period following the ending of a civil war. Such developments are positive in that they create opportunities for a sustainable and humane peace; but because disarmament is a complex process, its effects in immediate terms are not always positive. Given this fact, the project will also draw on other aspects, notably economic ones, to assess the situation; and account will be taken of experiences in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda. The study is also intended to provide an overview of the human resources tied up in the military sector and of demobilization experiences in the region since the early 1980s.

Contact: Kees Kingma, Bonn International Center for Conversion, An der Elisabethkirche 25, D-53113 Bonn, Tel.: +9 (228) 911 9638, Fax: +49 (228) 241215, e-mail: kingma@bicc.uni-bonn.de.

Peace on the Ground

The results of a research project on `neighbourhood peace', conducted by the Lower Saxony Projektverbund Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (Association of Peace and Conflict Research Projects) are now available in the form of a practical manual entitled Frieden vor Ort: Alltagsfriedensforschung--Subjektentwicklung--Partizipationspraxis. The authors--Johannes Esser, Dieter von Kietzell, Barbara Ketelhut, and Joachim Romppel--give a detailed account of the relevant theoretical and practical bases and of the prospects and possibilities for `neighbourhood' peace.

Contact: Prof. Johannes Esser, FB Sozialwesen, FH Nordostniedersachsen, Munstermannskamp 1, D-21335 Lüneburg, Tel.: +49 (4131) 706112, Fax: +49 (4131) 706191.

Non-violence in Practice

`We Shall not be Moved: Experiences with Non-violence' (Wir werden nicht weichen: Erfahrungen mit Gewaltfreiheit) is the title of a practical introduction to non-violent political action compiled by Günther Gugel for the Verein für Friedenspädagogik e.V. (Peace Education Association). The book is divided into the following chapters: (1) `Principles, People, Actions'; (2) `Decisions and What They are Based on'; (3) `Preconditions for Non-violent Action'; (4) `Questions, Problems, and Bones of Contention'; (5) `Non-violence as a Topic in Education Work'. The book thus comprehensively reflects the many different levels and historical phases of non-violent action and gives a fully rounded picture of the situation by also including original comment from sceptics and critics.

Contact: Verein für Friedenspädagogik Tübingen e.V., Bachstraße 22, D-72070 Tübingen, Tel.: +49 (7071) 21312, Fax: +49 (7071) 21543.

Paths to Civilian Conflict Resolution

Hints and practical examples for dealing with conflicts are provided in a book entitled Soft Power: Wege ziviler Konfliktbearbeitung. Ein Lern- und Arbeitsbuch für die Bildungsarbeit und den Unterricht (Soft Power: Paths to Civilian Conflict-Resolution--An Education and Training Manual) produced by Uli Jäger for the Verein für Friedenspädagogik e.V. (Peace Education Association). The book is divided into two broad sections. The first, headed `Civilian Conflict Resolution: Schemes and Schisms', deals with topics such as unofficial and official intervention in the state and societal worlds. The second, entitled `Practical Civilian Conflict Resolution: Approaches, Experiences, Examples', tackles practical aspects of conflict resolution such as peace missions/peace services in areas of crisis and war, negotiation and mediation, sanctions and boycotts against disputants, arbitration, legal rulings, tribunals, overcoming suffering and damage caused by war, enhancing understanding through the creation of networks. The book also describes a host of action- and project-oriented methods that can be used as models and stimuli in education work.

Contact: Verein für Friedenspädagogik Tübingen e.V., Bachstraße 22, D-72070 Tübingen, Tel.: +49 (7071) 21312, Fax: +49 (7071) 21543.

The FONAS Research Group

The Forschungsverbund Forschung zu Naturwissenschaft, Abrüstung und international Sicherheit (FONAS: Research Group on Science, Disarmament and International Security) is a nationwide German initiative made up of scientists from various establishments who are sensitive to the potential impact of science and technology and want to take an active part in research that will contribute to international peace and regulated disarmament. The group was officially registered as a non-profit-making organization in March 1996. It is chaired by Dr Götz Neuneck of the Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik (IFSH: Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy) at Hamburg University. FONAS's work is based on the notion that although scientific discoveries and technological advances do not usually cause conflicts, they can greatly increase the momentum of, and aggravate, critical developments. This is particularly true of the arms dynamic, of processes of economic transformation, and of environmental crises. World-wide, openly conducted concurrent research and regulated disarmament are thus indispensable contributions which scientists all over the world can make to promoting policy-making that is geared to achieving peace.

Up to now, activity in this area has concentrated on setting up research projects, providing advice to political decision-makers, supplying information to the public, producing a large number of publications, and establishing cross-links through co-operation with foreign research-groups. One of FONAS's further aims is to satisfy the need for a type of concurrent research geared to arms control and the effective use of technology. This is all the more urgent in view of the continuing latent nuclear threat, of armaments activities in East and South-East Asia, and of the internal arms-dynamic in Western states.

Contact: Dr Götz Neuneck, Institut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik an der Universität Hamburg, Falkenstein 1, D-22587 Hamburg, Tel.: +49 (40) 86 90 54-6, Fax: +49 (40) 8663615.

Church and Peace

As part of its `Peace and Security' rubric, the Protestant Academy of Loccum has published a new number in its `Loccumer Protokolle' series. Entitled Kirche und Frieden: Die Zukunft der christlichen Friedensdienste (Church and Peace: The Future of Christian Peace Service), it contains articles by Hartmut Bosch, Jörg Calließ, Ulrich Finckh, Ulrich Frey, Herbert Honsowitz, Dieter Senghaas, Eva Senghaas-Knobloch, and Cordelia Kopsch. Copies of the `Protokolle' are available from the address below.

Contact: Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Postfach 2158, D-31545 Rehburg-Loccum, Tel.: +49 (5766) 8 10, Fax: +49 (5766) 81 188/81 128.

BITS and IIP not in West Berlin

In the leading article in AFB-INFO 1/96, the Berliner Informationszentrum für Transatlantische Sicherheit (BITS: Berlin Information Centre on Translatlantic Security) and the Institut für Internationale Politik (IIP) were both inadvertently transplanted to the western part of Berlin. Both institutions are actually situated in the eastern area of the city. We would like to apologize for this mistake.

Contacts: Berliner Informationszentrum für Transatlantische Sicherheit, Rykestr. 40, D-10405 Berlin.

Institut für Internationale Politik, Rykestr. 40, D-10405 Berlin, Tel./Fax: +4 (30) 6097803.

Building Bridges

The Arbeitskreis `Frieden' in Forschung und Lehre an Fachhochschulen (Work-Group on the Research and Teaching of Peace at Institutes of Higher Education) has recently published the seventh edition of its yearbook. Under the overall title `Building Bridges', the editors--Roland Geitmann, Hartwig Boyan, and Peter Krahulec--have gathered together articles on peace research and peace education at institutes of higher education. The book is divided into three sections: memory work; bridges for people; and Europe as a bridge between cultures.

Contact: Arbeitskreis `Frieden' in Forschung und Lehre an Fachhochschulen, c/o Prof. Peter Krahulec, Gerloser Weg 12, D-36039 Fulda, Tel.: +49 (661) 71111, Fax: +49 (661) 9640199.

Institut für Friedensarbeit und gewaltfreie Konfliktaustragung (IFGK)

The recently published fourth working paper of the Institut für Friedensarbeit und gewaltfreie Konfliktaustragung (IFGK: Institute for Peace Work and Non-violent Conflict Resolution) is the work of Barbara Müller and Christian Büttner. It addresses the question of whether peaceful intervention can enhance the prospects for peace-keeping, peace-making, and peace-building and provides advice and suggestions about how to put such intervention into practice in a methodical and systematic way. Ten examples of non-violent intervention in aggressive conflicts are investigated. The aim of the study is to assess various theoretical models of escalation and de-escalation and, building on this, to work out intervention methods that can be used to resolve conflict in a de-escalatory manner. In the empirical part of the study, the case-studies are transposed onto this model, with a view to providing a more concrete picture of the way in which a non-violent approach to achieving de-escalation and conflict transformation operates.

Contact: Institut für Friedensarbeit und gewaltfreie Konfliktaustragung, Hauptstr. 35, D-55491 Wahlenau, Tel.: +49 (6543) 980096/+49 (30) 6937880, e-mail: Institute_fgk@bionic.zerberus.de.

Conflict Prevention: Opportunities and Problems

The Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Friedenswissenschaft in Nordrhein-Westfalen (LAG: North Rhine-Westphalia Regional Peace Studies Working Party) will be holding a meeting on the above topic on 29 November 1996 at the FernUniversität in Hagen. The speakers will be Professor Johan Galtung, Dr Rupert Neudeck, and a representative of the OSCE Office of Conflict Prevention in Vienna.

The meeting will begin with an official presentation of the FernUniversität's newly founded Institut Frieden und Demokratie (Peace and Democracy Institute) and it will be followed by the annual general meeting of the LAG. Those wishing to take part in this should write to the address below.

Contact: Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Friedenswissenschaft in NRW, FernUniversität-GHS Hagen, Elberfelderstr. 95, D-58084 Hagen, Tel.: +49 (2331) 987-4749, Fax: +49 (2331) 332904.

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