The Center for Migration Studies of New York both generates and helps to disseminate new knowledge in the field of migration, as well as fostering effective policy. It was set up as an independent non-profit-making educational institution in New York in 1964, and since then it has encouraged and facilitated the study of socio-demographic, historical, economic, political, legislative, and pastoral aspects of human migration and refugee movements. Public awareness of the important role which migratory movements will play at all levels of society has grown, and the task which the centre has set itself is to investigate the causes and consequences of human mobility both where it originates and in the countries of destination.
The CMS's main activities are: (1) scientific research into migration and refugees; (2) regular publication of the International Migration Review and Migration World, as well as books, monographs, bibliographies, documents, and occasional papers; (3) collection and processing of archival documentation and expansions of its specialized library; (4) organization of annual seminars, conferences, and symposia; (5) free assistance, counselling, and guidance to individual scholars and students, and the provision of information to the media, churches, and private and public organizations; (6) the running of the J. B. Scalabrini Pastoral Institute.
As one means of fulfilling its task, the centre operates an extensive publications programme. The International Migration Review (IMR), founded in 1966, is an interdisciplinary quarterly that reports on various aspects of human mobility. Migration World (MW), which first appeared in 1973, is a bimonthly magazine targeted at any individual professionally or personally involved with immigrants and refugees. In addition, the centre publishes the CMS Newsletter, which reports biannually on the centre's own activities, on new publications, research projects, conferences, and other events. The books and occasional papers which the centre publishes focus on major gaps in basic knowledge about international migration and ethnicity.
One vital part of the CMS's work is its extensive programme of research, undertaken either by the centre on its own, or else in collaboration with other institutions. During the last few years, topics of research have included: the adequacy and quality of US immigration data for policy analysis and evaluation, the problems which migrant groups experience in adapting to their new environment, and illegal immigrants in the Greater New York Metropolitan Area. Most recently, the CMS, in collaboration with the College of Staten Island, City University of New York, set up the first international think-tank on migration and refugee movements, which aims to bring a new quality to international exchanges on this issue.
Another focus of the CMS's work is the preparation and conduct of the Annual Legal Conference on Immigration and Refugee Policy, which provides a forum for the constructive development of immigration and refugee policy, with the participation of international and national experts from governmental as well as public and private bodies.
These varied initiatives and programmes are backed up by a documentation centre comprising a library of over 23,000 volumes. The CMS also maintains a World Directory of Study Centers and Research Programs on Human Migration.
The J. B. Scalabrini Pastoral Institute, which forms part of the CMS, aims to provide practical and pastoral support to migrants and refugees. It is also currently compiling a `Pastoral Dictionary on Migration'.
Contact: Center for Migration Studies, 209 Flagg Place, Staten Island, New York 10304-1199, Tel.: +1 (718) 351-8800, Fax: +1 (718) 667-4598.
The Instituto Internacional de Pesquisas para a Paz do Brasil (International Peace Research Institute of Brazil: Interpaz) is a private non-profit-making organization set up in 1995 in Curitiba (Brazil). Its aim is to develop peace-related projects and activities in the fields of culture, education, and science.
The institute aims: (1) to promote the idea and practice of a culture of peace; (2) to contribute to the development of a global sense of solidarity, tolerance, and co-operation; (3) to contribute to the development of a global democratic society based on respect for the human rights of all; (4) to develop projects and activities on multidisciplinary peace-issues in the fields of education, science, and culture; (5) to maintain co-operative links with other organizations, centres, institutions, and programmes in Brazil and other countries; (6) to seek funding for the implementation of its projects and activities.
The institute's major project at present is the creation of a Center for the Culture of Peace (CCP) which would operate in accordance with the principles and recommendations set out in UNESCO's `Culture of Peace' programme.
The following projects have also been launched as complements to the CCP: (1) the creation of a peace library and a peace information centre; (2) the publication of Portuguese-language books and other documentation by Brazilian and other authors; (3) the conduct of research programmes, in collaboration with other institutions, in the fields of the culture of peace, non-violence, human rights, social participation, and education; (4) the training of `key' individuals (professors, teachers, students), focusing in particular on the mediation and transformation of conflicts and the development of non-violent communication strategies; (5) the stimulation of social activities embodying the principles of conflict prevention and mediation and providing the individual with a means of dealing with conflicts; (6) the conduct of cultural and artistic activities designed to promote cultural exchange; (7) the establishment of the `culture of peace' as a topic of study in schools, universities, and other educational institutions in other cities of Brazil, in Latin American countries, and in other Portuguese-speaking countries.
Contact: Eduardo Santos Laffitte (Director), The International Peace Research Institute of Brazil--Interpaz, Caixa Postal 11001, Curitiba, PR, 80240-970, Brazil, Tel./Fax: +55 (41) 225-7005.
A special ceremony, with speeches on `Non-military Conflict Resolution' by Ulrich Albrecht (Free University of Berlin), Uta Zapf (German member of parliament), and Michael Klepsch (from the German foreign ministry), marked the inauguration, on 6 December 1995, of the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Institut für Friedenswissenschaften at the Christian Albrecht University in Kiel. The institute's lengthy name can be shortened to the handy acronym `SCHIFF' (or in English `SHIP'--Schleswig-Holstein Institute for Peace Research). SCHIFF incorporates the former Projektverbund Friedenswissenschaften Kiel (PFK), which was formed in 1990 as a permanent body for the conduct of peace research at Kiel University. Permission for the foundation of an institute was granted unanimously by the university senate in March 1994, and one year later its creation was approved in cabinet by the regional government of Schleswig-Holstein . On 1 October 1995, the ministry of culture approved the statutes of what is the newest federal German peace research institute.
SHIP's task as laid down in its statutes is the conduct of basic, practically oriented academic work on peace-related issues. Its stated aim is to expand current knowledge about the conditions of, possibilities for, and obstacles to, increasing integration, non-violence, and justice within the international system and individual societies, and to help disseminate that knowledge. With this in mind, SHIP seeks: (1) to focus competences from various academic disciplines onto specific problems and thus exploit their combined potential; (2) to seek co-operation not only with other academic institutions, but also with potential users of the research results; (3) to get its research and development work incorporated into university teaching-programmes and convey its findings to interested members of the wider public.
Particular attention will be paid to issues relating specifically to Schleswig-Holstein and the Baltic area as a whole. SHIP's statutes also state, last but not least, that `SHIP will involve women in peace research and, most importantly, will deal with topics that are of interest and relevance to women.'
The main areas of emphasis in SHIP's research are: prevention of violence, civilian conflict-resolution, conversion, and forms of economic management compatible with peace. Consideration is also given to ecological security and peace education. Attention is focused in particular on the changes resulting from the deceleration in armament; the question of how to deal with the changed situation of conflict in Europe (not least the problem of fraught minority-majority constellations), the development and implementation of tools and structures for non-military conflict resolution, and the changed conception of security. Within this framework of primary concerns, particular points of interest are: the importance of international and non-governmental organizations and the significance which trends towards the formation of transborder regions, and the creation of the structures of co-operation associated with these, are having in terms of peace policy.
The main empirical reference-point for SHIP's research is the Baltic region--not so much from a national or regional point of view, but more from the standpoint of the gradual shaping of peace in Europe: What role does the Baltic region play in the development of new European peace-structures? What effects are the changes in Europe having on the region? And how is this reflected in people's lives? The research devotes equal attention to conflict potential in the Baltic region itself and to options for reducing this potential, and dealing with it constructively, through increased transborder/regional co-operation at state, substate, and social level.
SHIP is a small organization. Some of its staff are full-time, others work partly at Kiel University partly at SHIP. In all, there are currently nine researchers from various disciplines--including the natural sciences--employed at SHIP.
SHIP is overseen by an executive committee comprising at least two members of the institute (currently Professor Klaus Potthoff and Dr Christian Wellmann). The executive is supported by a seven-person advisory committee. As stipulated in the statutes, one member of the advisory committee is delegated from the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Friedens- und Konfliktforschung (AFK: German Association for Peace and Conflict Research); two others must be academics from Baltic countries, thus underlining the international orientation of SHIP and its work. Major decisions--notably all those relating to the research (including the appointment of the academic staff)--are taken by the research council in conjunction with the executive. All researchers who have worked for SHIP for a minimum of two years have a vote on the council.
The institute's financial basis is made up of funds from the Schleswig-Holstein budget, currently amounting to just under DM500,000, plus contributions from third parties (these currently account for 40 per cent of the total budget).
SHIP occupies buildings belonging to Kiel University's technical faculty. It has a library whose core collection is made up of the holdings built up by the Institut für Friedenspolitik in Starnberg during the 1980s and taken over by the PFK in 1990. As well as basic peace-research literature, current acquisitions focus on the fields of conversion and conflict and co-operation in the Baltic region.
The institute publishes a series of working papers entitled `SCHIFF-texte (the most recent of these, no. 40, dealt with NGO efforts to put violence against women on the UN agenda-- Internationaler Wandel durch Nicht-Regierungsorganisationen? Wie das Thema Gewalt gegen Frauen auf die Agenda der UNO kam, by Jutta Joachim). In addition, SHIP commissions contributions to the book series `Kieler Schriften zur Friedenswissenschaft'--KSF. (volume 6, Preventive Diplomacy through Fact-Finding: How International Organisations Review the Conflict over Citizenship in Estonia and Latvia, by Hanne-Margret Birckenbach, is currently in preparation.)
Contact: Schleswig-Holsteinisches Institut für Friedenswissenschaften, Kaiserstr. 2/Geb. B; D-24143 Kiel, Tel.: +49 (431) 77572-851, Fax: +49 (431) 77572-852, e-mail: SCHIFF@SCHIFF.Uni-Kiel.D400.DE.